Glossary

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mitja_i
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Glossary

Post by mitja_i » Thu Jun 01, 2017 10:22 am


Assembly
(also: assembler, asm, machine code) low-level programming language for the Z80 (and other) processors.

AY
Sound chip used in later ZX Spectrum versions (128/+2/+3). ZX Spectrum Next uses TurboSound Next which emulates 3 AY chips.

Blitter
Coprocessor dedicated to the rapid movement and modification of data within a computer's memory.

Copper
Parallel device (coprocessor) synchronized with the video signal. Can modify next register state at specific points in the display generation. More info. Additional info.

Core
Core tells the FPGA chip how to configure itself and in this case, defines what computer it will become. A different core can recreate different (mostly old) computers.

DB9
9 pin joystick connector. Often called Atari joystick port, used also in Commodore computers. On original ZX Spectrum, it was used in Kempston Interface. Sinclair's ZX Interface 2 used different 9 pin connector, non-compatible to Kempston (Atari). ZX Spectrum Next is compatible with Cursor, Kempston and Interface 2 protocols (selectable).

DMA
Single channel direct memory access. Takes CPU slot so CPU is stalled while it operates, speed is connected to CPU speed for that reason.

divIDE
An ATA (IDE) interface which takes your ZX Spectrum computing to a whole new level. As the time takes its toll on ageing media such as audio tapes or diskettes, many ZX Spectrum enthusiasts simply stick to emulation for better reliability and comfort. With divIDE you can put your software collection to a hard disk, CD-ROM or even CompactFlash card and experience your favourite games, demos and utilities the way the were meant to be run - and even better. Using existing firmware, many users find their Speccy box again a live platform. Unofficial web page for DivIDE interface.

divMMC
The successor of the divIDE interface with SD card slot.

DRIVE (button)
Action button on the ZX Spectrum Next. It brings up divMMC interface.

Edge connector
Also: expansion bus. Allows peripherals to connect to ZX Spectrum.

Enhanced ULA
Used in ZX Spectrum Next for extending legacy Spectrum and Timex video modes to 256 colours out of a 512 colour palette.

esxDOS
esxDOS aims to be the ultimate firmware for the DivIDE/divMMC interface. Homepage. The history of ESXDOS, the DivMMC and the DivMMC EnJOY!

FM
Sound chip used in some of the ZX Spectrums.

FPGA
Wikipedia: an integrated circuit designed to be configured after manufacturing. For those who want to know more about FPGAs, Intel (formerly Altera) distributes an excellent e-book. It's not for programmers, but for people who want to know what an FPGA is and how it works. Also check out nanland.

Gosh Wondrerful
A totally compatible, yet enhanced version of the ZX Spectrum ROM for use in real hardware and any emulator - designed to give easy entry of BASIC and operating system commands both as a standalone machine and with a wide range of additional hardware. Made by Geoff Wearmouth. More info.

Interface 1
Also: IF1. Expansion board for the ZX Spectrum. A peripheral with ports for ZX Microdrives, RS-232 serial units, and ZX Net cables (for connection to a ZX Net local area network). Plugs into the edge connector. There was also Interface 2 which could be used to connect 2 (Sinclair type) joysticks, ZX Printer and 16k ROM cartridges with games.

Layer 2
Victor Trucco: Next exclusive mode that supports a "layer screen" 256x192 with 256 colours (from a 512 colour palette) per pixel. This layer can be OVER the standard screen (using 100% magenta as transparency colour) or UNDER the standard, using any ZX Spectrum colour as transparency. Sprites are exclusive to the Next too and can be used in the other modes.

LoRes (Enhanced video mode)
(also: Radasjim Mode) LoRes Layer is a mode similar to the Radastan Mode in that it offers a reduced resolution in exchange for more colours. LoRes Layer allows any of 256 colours anywhere on the screen but lowers the resolution in both dimensions to 128x96.

M1 (button)
Action button on the ZX Spectrum Next. A single click loads the Multiface software (if available and activated in boot menu). Pressing and holding the M1 button and selecting a key “1”, works like “F1” key. Key “2” as “F2” key and so on. This allows for using F1-F10 keys on the Next keyboard or with the original Spectrum keyboard. If buttons M1 and DRIVE are pressed simultaneously, the anti-brick system loads the update module from SD card and starts it to allow a new update. See: Multiface, NMI

Multiface
Hardware peripheral released by Romantic Robot UK Ltd. for several 1980s home computers. The primary function of the device was to dump the computer's memory to external storage, and it featured an iconic 'red button' that could be pressed at any time in order to activate it. As most games of the era did not have a save game feature, the Multiface allowed players to save their position by saving a loadable snapshot of the game.

NextZXOS
The operating system of the ZX Spectrum Next. It is based on +3eDOS for +3e and ResiDOS and adds new features to basic to take advantage of some of the Next's features. It also implements a significant portion of the esxDOS api so that dot commands and disk loading through esxDOS will continue to work. It also offers the +3dos/nextos api and among services are a page allocator and a file dialogue. More info.

NMI
Used in hardware Multiface to stop the program that's currently running and save it as a .SNA file, allowing the user to store a game exactly at the point (or stage) he's in. Non-Maskable Interrupt can be assigned to call a routine.

Opcode
Wikipedia: In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.

PS/2
Older connector for keyboard and mouse.

PSG
Programmable sound generator.

QL
Sinclair computer, made after ZX Spectrum. Made with different components, was not compatible with ZX Spectrum.

Radastan (video mode)
This graphic mode uses a resolution of 128x96.

RAM
Random access memory. ZX Spectrum originally had 16 KB RAM. Later models had 48 KB and 128 KB. Next has 1 MB, which is expandable to 2 MB onboard (2 pcs) or more with a daughterboard.

Raster interrupts
Monitor currently displayed line or trigger an interrupt at a specific line.

ResiDOS
ResiDOS is an extension to ZX Spectrum BASIC that operates with various add-on interfaces providing extra memory and hard disk or compactflash/SD card interfaces. Homepage.

ROM
Can make a ZX Spectrum Next behave as a computer, at the BASIC level, and for some games, at the machine code level. (for example ZX81) Also see: Core

RPi
Raspberry Pi. It comes in many variants. The ZX Spectrum Next Accelerated version includes Raspberry Pi Zero (RPi0).
There is another variant, the Pi Zero W, which has all the functionality of the original Pi Zero but with added WiFi and Bluetooth.

RTC
Real-time clock
Victor Trucco: Adds a real-time clock to the system. The esxDOS already uses it to put date and time in the files, but the new games will be able to use it for some location, day/night, some kind of timing or anything else you can imagine, related to time.

SAM Coupé
The SAM Coupé is an 8-bit British home computer that was first released in late 1989. It is commonly considered a clone of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer, since it features a compatible screen mode and emulated compatibility, and it was marketed as a logical upgrade from the Spectrum.

SID
Sound chip of Commodore's CBM-II, Commodore 64, Commodore 128 and Commodore MAX Machine home computers.

SLX16
FPGA used in ZX Spectrum Next.

Speaker
Internal speaker (also: beeper, buzzer) was found in the 48k and plus versions of ZX Spectrum. Later versions used chips for the sound. On the ZX Spectrum Next, it is possible to install a 1-inch piezo with impedance 16 ohm (type 16R, or the one in black plastic).

Sprites
A "sprite" is a 16x16 image that can be drawn anywhere on the screen, including the border area. Sprites can be moved incredibly fast over the screen because the job is done by hardware, not software. Sprites are small graphic images that can be positioned on-screen and moved about without destroying the background image. This means you don't have to worry about redrawing your screen after moving a sprite. More info. Facebook post.

TBBlue
TBBlue is the ZX Spectrum Next sort of bios-firmware, a first level software. It was first available in VTrucco and FBlabs boards.
Victor Trucco: TBBlue is the very same firmware that runs on all boards. Some boards have less space, so runs fewer features.
Next and Multicore have HDMI output, others don't. Next and some others have 256 colours and sprites, others don't. But still, exacely the same TBBlue. Homepage.

TurboSound Next
The internal Turbo Sound Next interface is an evolution of the original Turbo Sound, supporting also the AY tracks written for this interface. Currently implements three selectable PSGs, giving access to 9 sound channels plus 3 noise channels, so all the sound ICs can be played at the same time. More info.

ULA
The ULA (Uncommitted Logic Array) is a chip which controls most of the interfaces between the Z80 CPU and peripheral functions.

VHDL
Used to programme the FPGA boards.
Wikipedia: VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.

Z80
The 8-bit CPU microprocessor of the ZX Spectrum.

Z80n
CPU used in ZX Spectrum Next with extended instruction set with 7 MHz and 14 MHz turbo modes.

ZX80
Sinclair computer. The predecessor of the ZX81 and ZX Spectrum.

ZX81
Sinclair computer. Made after ZX80. The predecessor of ZX Spectrum.

ZX Spectrum +3e
The ZX Spectrum +3e is an enhanced version of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum +3 home computer that was produced by Amstrad in the late '80s. The enhancement consists of an updated operating system (in ROM) that fixes many of the bugs in the original ROM, and adds lots of extra commands to +3 BASIC. One of the most important features of the new ROM, however, is that it supports the use of a hard disk or compactflash card with your Speccy, allowing you to store vast amounts of quickly-accessible software. Homepage.
























Updated: 2018-09-06

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